The electrical design of standard machines based on magnetically equivalent circuits, know-how and measured values is fast and easy to perform. After a rough first dimensioning, the optimization can be carried out with the calculation of different geometry variants and operation points. Developers of large generators prefer to use their in-house program mostly written in Fortran or programmed with Simulink; these have been tuned with measurements results.

The magnetic field of new electrical machines should be calculated with the Finite-Elements Analysis. For the concept of a long motor, these calculations can be made in 2D; E-Cooling is well experienced with the software 2D-FEMM. For a more complex and detailed analysis, the calculations should be made in 3D using a commercial software.Losses in electric machines are ohmic losses (winding copper losses), re-magnetization (iron losses) and mechanical losses (ventilation losses and bearing losses); the copper losses are for most designs the largest. The allocation of the electrical losses to the places of production is not a subject of focus during the concept phase; the project members are mostly interested in the values of the total losses and the corresponding efficiency. A good knowledge of the locations of production is however required for temperature calculation.

The copper losses of the stator winding and pole winding can be directly
calculated based on the current and the voltage waveforms including skin
effect. The magnetic field and iron losses can be analytically calculated
based on the Steinmetz equation.

In order to localize the distribution of iron loss densities precisely. It is recommended
that 2D calculations of the magnetic field be performed prior to a thermal calculation. If this is not possible then the
supplementary losses can
be located using formulas available from freely-available literature..

Fair for electrical Automation

25.-27 Nov. 2014 in Nuremberg, Germany

Karim Segond will attend as a visitor.